Linux is a family of open source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Linux is typically packaged in a Linux distribution.

Popular Linux distributions include Debian, Fedora, and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland and a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether or include a solution stack such as LAMP. Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose.

With the popularity of Linux based system increasing, it’s always a good practice to know some of the basic commands of the operating system. The commands can be typed on to the Linux terminal which is present on the Linux based machines. Some of the most common and useful commands are listed below.

mkdir : Create a directory

ls: List directory contents.

mv: Move a file/directory.

apt-get : Command line utility to install/update/remove packages.

cp : Copy contents of a file to other file.

history  : Shows the command history.

ifconfig : Used to configure network interfaces.

man : Used to display manual pages.

shutdown: Used to shut down the system.

cat: Display the contents of a file.

free: Display the total amount of free space available along with the amount of memory used and swap memory in the system and also the buffers used by the system.

pwd: Display the current working directory.

rm : Delete/remove files or directories.

sudo su: Use the terminal as super-user.

whoami: Display the current username.

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